<Balsi>: motor driven siren
for Ballet Mecanique , George
<Balsi>: Large motor driven siren
The instructions in Anteil's score for Ballet Mechanique render it impossible to use a standard crank driven siren, as it is detrimental to the gears in these devices to be started and stopped fast. So an electrically driven mechanical siren with either safe braking possibilities or fast sound-muting control has to be designed. The score is very unclear as to the pitches the sirens are supposed to sound. In the score they appear notated as percussion instruments. Of course, from a mechanical point of view, driving the sound producing rotator of the siren directly with a motor would seem the easiest solution. After all this is how electrically driven sirens generally work. However, starting from an existing and historical crank driven siren, this would require an almost complete redesign and balancing of the instrument as we would have to remove the system of dented wheels inside. If we estimate the maximum speed of rotation on the crank as 3 rotations per second, and if we choose a standard motor with 2750 RPM - that is ca. 46 rotations per second, we need belts or gears with a speed down proportion of ca. 1:15. So, if we take a small V-belt wheel on the motor, diameter 40 mm, the driven wheel needs to have 600 mm in diameter. That's way larger than whats readily available on the market... Moreover, frictional losses would become quite large. So, a two step gear, two times 1:4, looked like a better design.
Before we tackled this project, we made already a few siren driven robots: <Sire> , a robot using 24 small sirens as well as the large siren integrated in <Springers>. In these earlier projects, we used DC motors and PWM control to drive the sirens. For <Balsi> we decided to give a throw at using a regular AC 3-phase induction motor. Next to the fact that such motors are readily available at low prices, we took profit of the availability of 16-bit Microchip controllers specifically designed for applications in 3-phase motor controllers, type nr. 24EP128MC202 being our favorite for the time being.
The circuit as we designed it looks like: The PWM base frequency was taken as 20 to 25 kHz and is used to generate 3 sine waves with the required phase shift of 120 degrees.Control range for the speed of rotation is 150 to 3000 rpm. The filtering components on the MIDI input appeared to be essential, as the amount of glitches produced by the fast switching MOSFETS at high frequencies and voltage are considerable and caused erroneous and missing data. The motor control firmware builds on a pretty straightforward PID regulating loop. Here is the algorithm, coded in Power Basic:
FUNCTION PID (BYVAL sollvalue AS SINGLE, BYVAL seinvalue AS SINGLE, BYVAL OPT kp AS SINGLE, BYVAL OPT ki AS SINGLE, BYVAL OPT kd AS SINGLE) EXPORT AS SINGLE
' The machine constants have to be passed on the first call only. Seinvalue is the measured reality value, generaly derived from a sample. Sollvalue is the goal we want to achieve. The function returns the correction factor for regulation and should be used in a regulation loop.
STATIC propconstant, integrationconstant, differenciationconstant AS SINGLE
STATIC oldfout, iterm AS SINGLE
LOCAL fout, pterm, dterm AS SINGLE
IF kp THEN propconstant = kp
IF ki THEN
IF ki <> integrationconstant THEN RESET iterm ' reset! integrationconstant = ki
IF kd THEN
IF kd <> differenciationconstant THEN RESET oldfout ' reset differenciationconstant = kd
IF fout = sollvalue - seinvalue ' calculate the error pterm = propconstant * fout. Proportionality term iterm = iterm + (integrationconstant * fout). Integration term dterm = differenciationconstant * (fout - oldfout)
oldfout = fout
FUNCTION = pterm + iterm + dterm ' return value for the PID correction signal
The siren we used for this automation project, before we changed its design, looked like this:
The handgrip and the crank were removed first.
Collaborators on this project:
- Laura Maes
- Mattias Parent
- Xavier Verhelst
- Kristof Lauwers
- Moniek Darge
<Balsi>: Midi controlled large siren
Purchase of a Polish military siren 500.00 Siemens 3-phase motor 220.00 PCB Motor controller board Separation transformer 500VA
Disassembly and cleaning of siren 1d PCB design of motor controller board 2d
Parts, technical specifications and maintenance notes:
- 01.12.2014: Discussion of the collaborative project with the people from Ictus.
- 03.03.2015: Purchase of a Polish military siren on the Ghent flea market
- 07.04.2015: Disassembly and cleaning of the siren
- 09-10.06.2017: Design of a PCB for the motor control.
- George Antheil, 'Bad Boy of Music', Da capo press, New York, 1981 (ISBN: 0-306-76084-3)
- George Antheil 'Ballet Mechanique', full score
- Gillon, E. "Elektrotechniek", deel II: Elektrische Machines, ed.Standaard Uitgeverij, Antwerpen 1969.
- Edward Hughes, 'Electrical Technology', ed. Longmans, London 1960.
- Humphreys, Julian (ed.), Philips Power Semiconductor Applications, ed. Philips Export, Eindhoven 1991
- Infineon, IGBT datasheet.
- Infineon, IPP60R180C7 datasheet
- IR2104 datasheet
- Paul Lehrman 'Introduction to Ballet Mecanique' (PDF)
- Raes, Godfried-Willem 'Bellenorgel' (1972)
- Raes, Godfried-Willem 'Expression control in musical automatons' (-2017)
Order numbers spare parts and special (harder to find...) components:
- Bridge rectifier 40A - 1kV: 9380841 (Farnell) type CM40010
- 1mF/250V Electrolytic cap, snap in, PCB, Epcos B43501-C2108-M: Farnell 1839316
- 5-pole DIN socket, PCB, Preh metal 71251-050: Farnell ord: 1193184 (used as MIDI input connector)
- 5-pole DIN socket, PCB, Plastic Hirshmann MAB5 SH, Farnell ord.: 1944987 (used as MIDI balanced line driver output connectors)